Biography of Abai

Biography of Abai

The great Kazakh poet and thinker was born on August 10, 1845 in Syrt-Kaskabulak village of Abai district of East Kazakhstan region in the family of Kunanbai Uskenbayevich and Ulzhan Turpanovna. The name of Abai is "Ibrahim". But his name was affectionately called "Abai" in the family. The ancestors of the future great poet were well known and respected in the country. The ancestors of Abai were from Karatau. It is located in the territory of modern Zhambyl and South Kazakhstan regions. Then it flows along the Syrdarya River, and from there to the modern Irgiz district of Aktobe region. Abai's grandfather Irgyzbai was born here. Irgyzbai is the father of Uskenbai, who is the father of Kunanbai, and then he will be Abai's third grandfather. In traditional Kazakh, this Irgyzbai was a famous biy (judge), whose grandfather gave the name of the tribe. Abai is thus a member of the Irgyzbai tribe of the Tobykty tribe. Grandmother Zere takes a special place in Abai's childhood. His grandmother introduced him to Kazakh folklore and the rich cultural heritage of the country for the first time.


In 1852-55, Abai first began to receive education from a mullah in a rural madrassah. This madrassah was built in 1850 by Kunanbay in Eskitam settlement near Zhidebay. In 1853, Abai first accompanied his father to Karkaralinsk. Kunanbai Uskenbayevich, senior sultan of Karkaralinsk district, built a mosque here. The boy Abai took part in the opening of the mosque. Having grown up, Abai has visited Karkaralinsk several times. At present, both the mosque built by Kunanbay and the house where Abai lived have been preserved and taken under state protection.


In 1855, his father sent Abai to study at Ahmet Riza Madrassah in Semey. Abai studied here until 1859. While studying at the madrassah, he attended a Russian school for 3 months, learned the Russian language and got acquainted with Russian literature. Studying at this madrassa and at the Russian school, it founded Abai's world view and knowledge.


In 1860 Abai married Dilda Tusupovna. She gave birth to the children of Abai - Akylbai, Akimbai, Abdrakhman, Magaui, Raihan. Akylbay and Magauiya were famous poets whose poems and poems have been included in the history of Kazakh literature.


In 1866 and for the second time in 1872 Abai was elected head of the Tobykty parish. At that time, the position of the head of the parish was very high. In 1876, Abai was elected the head of Konyr-Kokshe parish for the third time. 


In 1875 he married the poetess Aigerim. He had children from Aigerim named Turagul, Mekail, Izkail and Kenje. Turagul left a big memo about Abai. He and Mekayil took an active part in the national liberation movement at the beginning of the 20th century, the Alash movement. 


As for the social activities of Abai, he was elected a member of the Semipalatinsk Statistical Committee in 1886, and in 1887 he was a member of the Society of Guardians of Primary Education in Semipalatinsk, and a member of the Russian Geographical Society in 1902.


One of the qualities that made Abai famous in the country was his ability to make decisions on controversial issues. Abai, who was close to his father Kunanbai Biy, was well versed in Kazakh management traditions and legal issues related to the conquest of Kazakh lands by the Russian Empire. He was able to resolve many disputes fairly. As a result, the people of the country came to Abai to defend their rights. Many of Abai's words have reached our time. An excellent example of his judging was his participation in the Karamola Congress in 1885, where he was elected as a leading biy (judge) and was able to adopt legal provisions concerning legal regulation. 


Abai's first poem was published at the age of 10. After that, a boy Abai, young Abai, wrote several poems. These include "Poets of the East", "Fzuli, Shamsi, Saihali" and several poems of dedication. But then Abai did not pay attention to the poems. However, his talent did manifest itself, and from 1882 Abai began to pay constant attention to poetry. The main themes of his lyrical poems were the fate of the Kazakh people, social relations in the country, education, nature, philosophy, love. He also translated about sixty literary works from Russian. Among them are Russian poets: I. Krylov, A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, I. Krylov, I. Bunin, Y. Polonsky and German poet I. Goethe, English poet Byron and Polish poet A. Mickiewicz. Abai also wrote stories. Such stories as "Alexander", "Masgut" and "The History of Azim". In his poems, through the stories he showed such valuable human qualities as morality, honesty and friendship. 


The largest and most philosophical part of Abai's legacy is his "Words of Excultation". In this prosaic, philosophical work of 45 words of edification, Abai is fully reflected as a great thinker. Every word of edification is about the creator, religion, nature, man and his different qualities. These words of edification show that Abai knew the history and essence of religion, philosophy and thinkers of East and West. 


The life and heritage of Abai is an excellent example for the Kazakh people. The depth of Abai's thought and the beauty of his poetry make him one of the leading thinkers and poets in the world.